.. _basic math: Basic Math Functions ==================== These functions are built-in for performing basic math operations in kOS. .. _constants: .. index:: Fundamental Constants Fundamental Constants --------------------- There is a bound variable called CONSTANT which contains some basic fundamental constants about the universe that you may find handy in your math operations. Prior to kOS version 0.18, CONSTANT was implemented as a function call, so values were accessed as CONSTANT():PI and the like. This functionality has been retained for backward compatibility, but new code should instead call CONSTANT:PI. .. list-table:: :header-rows: 1 :widths: 1 4 * - Identifier - Description * - :global:G - Newton's Gravitational Constant. * - :global:g0 - gravity acceleration (m/s^2) at sea level on Earth. * - :global:E - Base of the natural log (Euler's number) * - :global:PI - :math:\pi * - :global:c - Speed of light in a vacuum, in m/s. * - :global:AtmToKPa - Conversion constant: Atmospheres to kiloPascals. * - :global:KPaToAtm - Conversion constant: kiloPascals to Atmospheres. * - :global:DegToRad - Conversion constant: Degrees to Radians. * - :global:RadToDeg - Conversion constant: Radians to Degrees. * - :global:Avogadro - Avogadro's Constant * - :global:Boltzmann - Boltzmann's Constant * - :global:IdealGas - The Ideal Gas Constant .. global:: Constant:G Newton's Gravitational Constant that the game's planetary bodies are implying in their configuration data. (6.67384E-11 as of the last update to these documents). Note, the stock KSP game never technically records a value for G in its data. kOS derives this value by calculating it based on the Sun's Mass and its Gravitational Parameter. It is possible for a mod (or perhaps a future release of KSP, if mistakes were made) to define a universe in which Newton's Gravitational Constant, G, isn't actually constant at all within that game universe, and instead varies from one sphere of influence to the next. Such a universe would be breaking some laws of physics by a lot, but it is technically possible in the game's data model. Due to this strange feature in the game's data model, it is probably safer to always have your scripts use the body's Mu in your formulas instead of explicitly doing mass*G to derive it. Do NOT confuse this with Constant:g0 below. Example:: PRINT "Gravitational parameter of Kerbin, calculated:". PRINT constant:G * Kerbin:Mass. PRINT "Gravitational parameter of Kerbin, hardcoded:". PRINT Kerbin:Mu. PRINT "The above two numbers had *better* agree.". PRINT "If they do not, then your solar system is badly configured.". .. global:: Constant:g0 Standard value the game uses for acceleration due to gravity at sea level on Earth. (9.80655 m/s^2 as of the last update to these documents). Do NOT confuse this with Constant:G above. The place where this matters the most is in ISP calculations. The rocket equation using ISP contains an inherent conversion from mass to weight that basically means, "what would this mass of fuel have weighed at g0?". Some kind of official standard value of g0 is needed to use ISP properly to predict how much fuel will be burned in a scenario. In pretty much any other calculation you do in your kOS scripts, other than when using ISP in the Rocketry Equation, you should probably not use g0 and instead calculate your local gravity more precisely based on your actual radius to the body center. Not only because this is more accurate, but because the g0 you see here is NOT the g0 you would actually have on Kerbin's sea level. It's the g0 on Earth, which is what the game's ISP numbers are using. Kerbin's sea level g0 is ever so slightly different from Earth's g0 (but not by much.) :: PRINT "Gravitational parameter of Kerbin is:". PRINT constant:G * Kerbin:Mass. .. global:: Constant:E Natural Log base "e":: PRINT "e^2 is:". PRINT constant:e ^ 2. .. global:: Constant:PI Ratio of circumference of a circle to its diameter, 3.14159265... :: SET diameter to 10. PRINT "circumference is:". PRINT constant:pi * diameter. .. global:: Constant:C Speed of light in a vacuum, in meters per second. :: SET speed to SHIP:VELOCITY:ORBIT:MAG. SET percentOfLight to (speed / constant:c) * 100. PRINT "We're going " + percentOfLight + "% of lightspeed!". .. note:: In Kerbal Space Program, all physics motion is purely Newtonian. You can go faster than the speed of light provided you have enough delta-V, and no time dilation effects will occur. The universe will behave entirely linearly even at speeds near *c*. This constant is provided mainly for the benefit of people who are playing with the mod "RemoteTech" installed, who may want to perform calculations about signal delays to hypothetical probes. (Note that if the probe already has a connection, you can :ref:ask Remotetech directly  what the signal delay is. .. global:: Constant:AtmToKPa A conversion constant. If you have a pressure measurement expressed in atmospheres of pressure, you can multiply it by this to get the equivalent in kiloPascals (kiloNewtons per square meter). :: PRINT "1 atm is:". PRINT 1 * constant:AtmToKPa + " kPa.". .. global:: Constant:KPaToATM A conversion constant. If you have a pressure measurement expressed in kiloPascals (kiloNewtons per square meter), you can multiply it by this to get the equivalent in atmospheres. :: PRINT "100 kPa is:". PRINT 100 * constant:KPaToATM + " atmospheres". .. global:: Constant:DegToRad A conversion constant. If you have an angle measured in degrees, you can multiply it by this to get the equivalent measure in radians. It is exactly the same thing as saying constant:pi / 180, except the result is pre-recorded as a constant number and thus no division is performed at runtime. :: PRINT "A right angle is:". PRINT 90 * constant:DegToRad + " radians". .. global:: Constant:RadToDeg A conversion constant. If you have an angle measured in radians, you can multiply it by this to get the equivalent measure in degrees. It is exactly the same thing as saying 180 / constant:pi, except the result is pre-recorded as a constant number and thus no division is performed at runtime. :: PRINT "A radian is:". PRINT 1 * constant:RadToDeg + " degrees". .. global:: Constant:Avogadro Avogadro's Constant. This value can be used in calculating atmospheric properties for drag purposes, which can be a rather advanced topic. (Avogadro's constant Wikipedia Page) _. .. global:: Constant:Boltzmann Boltzmann Constant. This value can be used in calculating atmospheric properties for drag purposes, which can be a rather advanced topic. (Boltzmann constant Wikipedia Page) _. .. global:: Constant:IdealGas Ideal Gas Constant. This value can be used in calculating atmospheric properties for drag purposes, which can be a rather advanced topic. (Ideal Gas Constant Wikipedia Page) _. .. _math functions: .. index:: Mathematical Functions Mathematical Functions ---------------------- ==================== =================================================== Function Description ==================== =================================================== :func:ABS(a) absolute value :func:CEILING(a) round up :func:CEILING(a,b) round up to nearest place :func:FLOOR(a) round down :func:FLOOR(a,b) round down to nearest place :func:LN(a) natural log :func:LOG10(a) log base 10 :func:MOD(a,b) modulus :func:MIN(a,b) return a or b, whichever is lesser. :func:MAX(a,b) return a or b, whichever is greater. :func:RANDOM() random fractional number between 0 and 1. :func:ROUND(a) round to whole number :func:ROUND(a,b) round to nearest place :func:SQRT(a) square root :func:CHAR(a) character from unicode :func:UNCHAR(a) unicode from character ==================== =================================================== .. function:: ABS(a) Returns absolute value of input:: PRINT ABS(-1). // prints 1 .. function:: CEILING(a) Rounds up to the nearest whole number:: PRINT CEILING(1.887). // prints 2 .. function:: CEILING(a,b) Rounds up to the nearest place value:: PRINT CEILING(1.887,2). // prints 1.89 .. function:: FLOOR(a) Rounds down to the nearest whole number:: PRINT FLOOR(1.887). // prints 1 .. function:: FLOOR(a,b) Rounds down to the nearest place value:: PRINT CEILING(1.887,2). // prints 1.88 .. function:: LN(a) Gives the natural log of the provided number:: PRINT LN(2). // prints 0.6931471805599453 .. function:: LOG10(a) Gives the log base 10 of the provided number:: PRINT LOG10(2). // prints 0.30102999566398114 .. function:: MOD(a,b) Returns remainder from integer division. Keep in mind that it's not a traditional mathematical Euclidean division where the result is always positive. The result has the same absolute value as mathematical modulo operation but the sign is the same as the sign of dividend:: PRINT MOD(21,6). // prints 3 PRINT MOD(-21,6). // prints -3 .. function:: MIN(a,b) Returns The lower of the two values:: PRINT MIN(0,100). // prints 0 .. function:: MAX(a,b) Returns The higher of the two values:: PRINT MAX(0,100). // prints 100 .. function:: RANDOM() Returns a random floating point number in the range [0..1]:: PRINT RANDOM(). //prints a random number PRINT "Let's roll a 6-sided die 10 times:". FOR n in range(0,10) { // To make RANDOM give you an integer in the range [0..n-1], you do this: // floor(n*RANDOM()). // So for example : a die giving values from 1 to 6 is like this: print (1 + floor(6*RANDOM())). } .. function:: ROUND(a) Rounds to the nearest whole number:: PRINT ROUND(1.887). // prints 2 .. function:: ROUND(a,b) Rounds to the nearest place value:: PRINT ROUND(1.887,2). // prints 1.89 .. function:: SQRT(a) Returns square root:: PRINT SQRT(7.89). // prints 2.80891438103763 .. function:: CHAR(a) :parameter a: (number) :return: (string) single-character string containing the unicode character specified :: PRINT CHAR(34) + "Apples" + CHAR(34). // prints "Apples" .. function:: UNCHAR(a) :parameter a: (string) :return: (number) unicode number representing the character specified :: PRINT UNCHAR("A"). // prints 65 .. _trig: .. index:: Trigonometric Functions Trigonometric Functions ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ .. list-table:: :header-rows: 1 :widths: 1 * - Function * - :func:SIN(a) * - :func:COS(a) * - :func:TAN(a) * - :func:ARCSIN(x) * - :func:ARCCOS(x) * - :func:ARCTAN(x) * - :func:ARCTAN2(y,x) .. function:: SIN(a) :parameter a: (deg) angle :return: sine of the angle :: PRINT SIN(6). // prints 0.10452846326 .. function:: COS(a) :parameter a: (deg) angle :return: cosine of the angle :: PRINT COS(6). // prints 0.99452189536 .. function:: TAN(a) :parameter a: (deg) angle :return: tangent of the angle :: PRINT TAN(6). // prints 0.10510423526 .. function:: ARCSIN(x) :parameter x: (:ref:scalar ) :return: (deg) angle whose sine is x :: PRINT ARCSIN(0.67). // prints 42.0670648 .. function:: ARCCOS(x) :parameter x: (:ref:scalar ) :return: (deg) angle whose cosine is x :: PRINT ARCCOS(0.67). // prints 47.9329352 .. function:: ARCTAN(x) :parameter x: (:ref:scalar ) :return: (deg) angle whose tangent is x :: PRINT ARCTAN(0.67). // prints 33.8220852 .. function:: ARCTAN2(y,x) :parameter y: (:ref:scalar ) :parameter x: (:ref:scalar ) :return: (deg) angle whose tangent is :math:\frac{y}{x} :: PRINT ARCTAN2(0.67, 0.89). // prints 36.9727625 The two parameters resolve ambiguities when taking the arctangent. See the wikipedia page about atan2 _ for more details.