# File I/O¶

For information about where files are kept and how to deal with volumes see the Volumes page in the general topics section of this documentation.

## Understanding directories¶

kOS, just as real life filesystems, has the ability to group files into directories. Directories can contain other directories, which can result in a tree-like structure.

Directories, contrary to files, do not take up space on the volume. That means you can have as many directories on your volume as you want.

## Paths¶

kOS uses strings of a specific format as a way of describing the location of files and directories. We will call them path strings or simply - paths. They will look familiar to users of most real operating systems. On Windows for example you might have seen something like this:

C:\Program Files\Some Directory\SomeFile.exe


Linux users are probably more familiar with paths that look like this:

/home/user/somefile


kOS’s paths are quite similar, this is how a full path string might look like:

0:/lib/launch/base.ks


There are two types of paths in kOS. Absolute paths explicitly state all data needed to locate an item. Relative paths describe the location of an item relative to the current directory or current volume.

Warning

Limitations on file names

On case-sensitive filesystems typically found on Linux and Mac, you should name entirely with lowercase-only filenames or the system may fail to find them when you try to access the path.

### Absolute paths¶

Absolute paths have the following format:

volumeIdOrName:[/directory/subdirectory/...]/filename


The first slash immediately after the colon is optional.

Examples of valid absolute paths:

0:flight_data/data.json
secondcpu: // refers to the root directory of a volume
1:/boot.ks


You can use a special two-dot directory name - .. - to denote the parent of a given directory. In the following example the two paths refer to the same file:

0:/directory/subdirectory/../file
0:/directory/file


A path that points to the parent of the root directory of a volume is considered invalid. Those paths are all invalid:

0:..
0:/../..
0:/directory/../..


### Current directory¶

To facilitate the way you interact with volumes, directories and files kOS has a concept of current directory. That means you can make a certain directory a default one and kOS will look for files you pass on to kOS commands in that directory. Let’s say for example that you’re testing a script located on the Archive volume in the launch_scripts directory. Normally every time you’d like to do something with it (edit it, run it, copy it etc) you’d have to tell kOS exactly where that file is. That could be troublesome, especially when it would have to be done multiple times.

Instead you can change your current directory using cd(path) (as in change directory) command and then refer to all the files and directories you need by using their relative paths (read more below).

You can always print out the current directory’s path like this:

PRINT PATH().


Remember that you can print the contents of the current directory using the LIST command (which is a shortcut for LIST FILES).

### Relative paths¶

Relative paths are the second way you can create paths. Those paths are transformed by kOS into absolute paths by adding them to the current directory.

Let’s say that you’ve changed your current directory to 0:/scripts. If you pass launch.ks path to any command kOS will add it to current directory and create an absolute path this way:

CD("0:/scripts").
DELETEPATH("launch.ks"). // this will remove 0:/scripts/launch.ks
COPYPATH("../launch.ks", ""). // this will copy 0:/launch.ks to 0:/scripts/launch.ks


As you can see above an empty relative path results in a path pointing to the current directory.

If a relative path starts with / kOS will only take the current directory’s volume and add it to the relative path:

CD("0:/scripts").
COPYPATH("/launch.ks", "launch_scripts"). // will copy 0:/launch.ks to 0:/scripts/launch_scripts


### Paths and bareword arguments¶

Warning

kOS has historically always allowed you to omit quotes for file names in certain cases. Although it is still possible (explanation below) we recommend against it now. kOS 1.0 has introduced directory support and as a result the number of cases in which omitting quotes would be fine is less than before. Paths like ../file make things very confusing to the kOS parser because kerboscript uses a dot to denote the end of an expression. If you’re used to skipping quotes you might find that now you will often have to add them to make the path understandable to kOS. The only case in which you can reliably omit quotes is when you want to use simple, relative paths: RUN script., CD(dir.ext).

Any of the commands below which use path arguments follow these rules:

• A path may be an expression which evaluates to a string.
• A path may also be an undefined identifier which does not match a variable name, in which case the bare word name of the identifier will be used as the path. If the identifier does match a variable name, then it will be evaluated as an expression and the variable’s contents will be used as the path.
• A bareword path may contain file extensions with dots, provided it does not end in a dot.
• Bareword filenames containing any characters other than A-Z, 0-9, underscore, and the period extension separator (‘.’), can only be referred to using a string expression (with quotes), and cannot be used as a bareword expression (without quotes). This makes it impossible to construct valid kOS paths that contain slashes using bareword paths - you will need to use quotes.
• If your filesystem is case-sensitive (Linux and sometimes Mac OSX, or even Windows if using some kinds of remote network drives), then bareword filenames will only work properly on filenames that are all lowercase. If you try to use a file with capital letters in the name on these systems, you will only be able to do so by quoting it.

Putting the above rules together, you can create paths in any of the following ways:

COPYPATH(myfilename, "1:"). // This is an example of a bareword filename.
COPYPATH("myfilename", "1:"). // This is an example of an EXPRESSION filename.
COPYPATH(myfilename.ks, "1:"). // This is an example of a bareword filename.
COPYPATH(myfilename.txt, "1:"). // This is an example of a bareword filename.
COPYPATH("myfilename.ks", "1:"). // This is an example of an EXPRESSION filename
SET str TO "myfile" + "name" + ".ks".
COPYPATH(str, "1:"). // This is an example of an EXPRESSION filename
COPYPATH("myfile" + "name" + ".ks", "1:"). // This is an example of an EXPRESSION filename


### Other data types as paths¶

Whenever kOS expects a path string as an argument you can actually pass one of the following data types instead:

### path(pathString)¶

Will create a Path structure representing the given path string. You can omit the argument to create a Path for the current directory.

### scriptpath()¶

Will return a Path structure representing the path to the currently running script.

## Volumes¶

### volume(volumeIdOrName)¶

Will return a Volume structure representing the volume with a given id or name. You can omit the argument to create a Volume for the current volume.

### SWITCH TO Volume|volumeId|volumeName.¶

Changes the current directory to the root directory of the specified volume. Volumes can be referenced by instances of Volume, their ID numbers or their names if they’ve been given one. Understanding how volumes work is important to understanding this command.

Example:

SWITCH TO 0.                          // Switch to volume 0.
SET VOLUME(1):NAME TO "AwesomeDisk".  // Name volume 1 as AwesomeDisk.
SWITCH TO "AwesomeDisk".              // Switch to volume 1.
PRINT VOLUME(1):NAME.                 // Prints "AwesomeDisk".


## Files and directories¶

Warning

Changed in version 1.0.0: COPY, RENAME and DELETE are now deprecated

Previously you could use the aforementioned commands to manipulate files. Currently using them will result in a deprecation message being shown. After subdirectories were introduced in kOS 1.0 it was necessary to add more flexible commands that could deal with both files and directories. The old syntax was not designed with directories in mind. It would also make it difficult for the kOS parser to properly handle paths.

Please update your scripts to use the new commands: movepath(frompath, topath), copypath(frompath, topath) and deletepath(path). runpath(path).

### LIST¶

Shows a printed list of the files and subdirectories in the current working directory.

This is actually a shorthand for the longer LIST FILES command.

To get the files into a LIST structure you can read in a script (rather than just printed to the screen), use the list files in ... command.

### CD(PATH)¶

Changes the current directory to the one pointed to by the PATH argument. This command will fail if the path is invalid or does not point to an existing directory.

### COPYPATH(FROMPATH, TOPATH)¶

Copies the file or directory pointed to by FROMPATH to the location pointed to TOPATH. Depending on what kind of items both paths point to the exact behaviour of this command will differ:

1. FROMPATH points to a file

• TOPATH points to a directory

The file from FROMPATH will be copied to the directory.

• TOPATH points to a file

Contents of the file pointed to by FROMPATH will overwrite the contents of the file pointed to by TOPATH.

• TOPATH points to a non-existing path

New file will be created at TOPATH, along with any parent directories if necessary. Its contents will be set to the contents of the file pointed to by FROMPATH.

2. FROMPATH points to a directory

If FROMPATH points to a directory kOS will copy recursively all contents of that directory to the target location.

• TOPATH points to a directory

The directory from FROMPATH will be copied inside the directory pointed to by TOPATH.

• TOPATH points to a file

The command will fail.

• TOPATH points to a non-existing path

New directory will be created at TOPATH, along with any parent directories if necessary. Its contents will be set to the contents of the directory pointed to by FROMPATH.

3. FROMPATH points to a non-existing path

The command will fail.

### MOVEPATH(FROMPATH, TOPATH)¶

Moves the file or directory pointed to by FROMPATH to the location pointed to TOPATH. Depending on what kind of items both paths point to the exact behaviour of this command will differ, see COPYPATH above.

### DELETEPATH(PATH)¶

Deleted the file or directory pointed to by FROMPATH. Directories are removed along with all the items they contain.

### EXISTS(PATH)¶

Returns true if there exists a file or a directory under the given path, otherwise returns false. Also see Volume:EXISTS.

### CREATE(PATH)¶

Creates a file under the given path. Will create parent directories if needed. It will fail if a file or a directory already exists under the given path. Also see Volume:CREATE.

### CREATEDIR(PATH)¶

Creates a directory under the given path. Will create parent directories if needed. It will fail if a file or a directory already exists under the given path. Also see Volume:CREATEDIR.

### OPEN(PATH)¶

Will return a VolumeFile or VolumeDirectory representing the item pointed to by PATH. It will return a Boolean false if there’s nothing present under the given path. Also see Volume:OPEN.

## JSON¶

### WRITEJSON(OBJECT, PATH)¶

Serializes the given object to JSON format and saves it under the given path.

Usage example:

SET L TO LEXICON().
SET NESTED TO QUEUE().

NESTED:PUSH("nestedvalue").

WRITEJSON(L, "output.json").


Reads the contents of a file previously created using WRITEJSON and deserializes them.

Example:

SET L TO READJSON("output.json").
PRINT L["key1"].


## Miscellaneous¶

### Running Scripts¶

You may run saved script files using the various Run Command.

Examples:

RUNPATH("filename", arg1, arg2).
RUN filename(arg1, arg2).


The topic of the RUNPATH and RUN commands is complex enough to warrant its own separate Run Command Page. Consult that page for the full details of how these commands work.

### LOG TEXT TO PATH¶

Logs the selected text to a file. Can print strings, or the result of an expression.

#### Arguments¶

• argument 1: Value you would like to log.

Example:

LOG "Hello" to mylog.txt.    // logs to "mylog.txt".
LOG 4+1 to "mylog" .         // logs to "mylog.ks" because .ks is the default extension.
LOG "4 times 8 is: " + (4*8) to mylog.   // logs to mylog.ks because .ks is the default extension.


### COMPILE PROGRAM (TO COMPILEDPROGRAM)¶

(experimental)

Arguments:

argument 1
Path to the source file.
argument 2
Path to the destination file. If the optional argument 2 is missing, it will assume it’s the same as argument 1, but with a file extension changed to *.ksm.

Pre-compiles a script into an Kerboscript ML Executable image that can be used instead of executing the program script directly.

The RUN, RUNPATH, or RUNONCEPATH commands (mentioned elsewhere on this page) can work with either *.ks script files or *.ksm compiled files.

The full details of this process are long and complex enough to be placed on a separate page.

Please see the details of the Kerboscript ML Executable.

### EDIT PATH¶

Arguments:

argument 1
Path of the file for editing.

Edits or creates a program file described by filename PATH. If the file referred to by PATH already exists, then it will open that file in the built-in editor. If the file referred to by PATH does not already exist, then this command will create it from scratch and let you start editing it.

It is important to type the command using the filename’s .ks extension when using this command to create a new file. (Don’t omit it like you sometimes can in other places in kOS). The logic to automatically assume the .ks extension when the filename has no extension only works when kOS can find an existing file by doing so. If you are creating a brand new file from scratch with the EDIT command, and leave off the .ks extension, you will get a file created just like you described it (without the extension).

Note

The Edit feature was lost in version 0.11 but is back again after version 0.12.2 under a new guise. The best way to edit code is still to use a text editor external to KSP. The on-the-fly editor that this command invokes is still useful however for exploratory test editing and playing around, or for editing a file on a remote probe’s local volume (which isn’t stored as a normal file on your hard drive like files in the archive are, so it can’t be edited with an external text editor program).

Example:

EDIT filename.       // edits filename.ks
EDIT filename.ks.    // edits filename.ks
EDIT "filename.ks".  // edits filename.ks
EDIT "filename".     // edits filename.ks
EDIT "filename.txt". // edits filename.txt