Lexicon

A Lexicon is an associative array, and is similar to the LIST type. If you are an experienced programmer who already knows what “associative array” means, you can probably skip this section and go to the next part of the page further down, otherwise read on:

In a normal array, or in kerboscript’s LIST type you specify which item in the list you want by giving its integer position in the list.

But in a Lexicon, you store pairs of keys and values, where the keys can be any type of thing you like, not just integers, and then you specify which item you want by using that key’s value.

Here’s a small example:

set arr to lexicon().
arr:add( "ABC", 1234.1 ).
arr:add( "Carmine", 4.1 ).
print arr["ABC"]. // prints 1234.1
print arr["Carmine"]. // prints 4.1

Notice how it looks a lot like a list, but the values in the index brackets are strings instead of integers. This is the most common use of a lexicon, to use strings as the key index values (and in fact why it’s called “lexicon”). However you can really use any value you feel like for the keys - strings, RGB colors, numbers, etc.

Lexicons are case-insensitive

One important difference between Lexicons in kerboscript and associative arrays in most other languages is that kerboscript Lexicons use case-insensitive keys by default (when the keys are strings). This behaviour can be changed with the :CASESENSITIVE flag described below.

Constructing a lexicon

If you wish to make your own lexicon from scratch you can do so with the LEXICON() or LEX() built-in function:

// Make an empty lexicon with zero items in it:
set mylexicon to lexicon().

If LEXICON() is given arguments then they are interpreted as alternating keys and values:

set mylexicon to lexicon("key1", "value1", "key2", "value2").

Will have the same effect as:

set mylexicon to lexicon().
set mylexicon["key1"] to "value1".
set mylexicon["key2"] to "value2".

Obviously when this syntax is used an even number of arguments is expected.

You can also pass any enumerable to LEXICON(). Its elements will be interpreted as alternating keys and values just like above. The following will have the same effect as the previous code fragment:

set mylist to list("key1", "value1", "key2", "value2").
set mylexicon to lexicon(mylist).

The keys and the values of a lexicon can be any type you feel like, and do not need to be of a homogeneous type.

Lexicons can use suffix syntax

One special thing can be done with a Lexicon that cannot be done with other types of structures in kOS - a lexicon can use the “suffix syntax”.

By “suffix syntax”, what is meant is things like the colons in these statements:

print SHIP:VELOCITY.
print MUN:RADIUS.

There is a special extra step when looking up a suffix. Normally kOS throws an error if the suffix name refers to a suffix that does not exist on the object. But, if the item on the left side of the colon is a LEXICON type, then it also will check to see if the suffix matches any of the lexicon’s keys, and if it does, that key’s value will be retrieved.

Here is an example:

local mylex is lexicon(
  "key1", "value1", "key2", "value2", "key3", "value3").
print mylex:key1. // prints "value1".
print mylex:key2. // prints "value2".
print mylex:key3. // prints "value3".

This is added as a convenient shortcut. It literally means the same thing as looking up the key with the square-bracket syntax:

local mylex is lexicon(
  "key1", "value1", "key2", "value2", "key3", "value3").
// These two lines are exactly the same:
print mylex["key1"].
print mylex:key1.

The key must follow the rules for a valid identifier to do this:

Lexicons can use keys that are not even strings at all, but if you want to use this suffix syntax, it will only work with string keys. Furthermore, in order to use this shortcut, you must make sure the string key you are trying to use is one that makes a valid identifier in the kerboscript language. For example:

local mylex is lexicon(
  "key_no_spaces", 100, "key with spaces", 200).
print mylex["key_no_spaces"].   // This works fine.
print mylex["key with spaces"]. // This works fine.
print mylex:key_no_spaces.      // This works fine.
print mylex:key with spaces.    // <-- BUT THIS IS AN ERROR.

You cannot use a key as a suffix if that key has any characters in it that make it invalid as an identifier, like spaces. This is because the parser has to be able to read the colon suffix syntax first before the system can start looking up the key value.

This suffix syntax for lexicons only works because kerboscript is a “late binding” language, where it doesn’t try to find identifier names until the moment it encounters them during the program run. Therefore it can look up the lexicon names on the spot as it encounters that line of code.

In other words, this will cause an error:

local mylex is lexicon().
print mylex:mykey. // <--- Error: no such thing in the lexicon yet.
sey mylex["mykey"] to "value". // here it gets added, but it's too late.

While doing it in this order will work:

local mylex is lexicon().
set mylex["mykey"] to "value". // adding the value first
print mylex:mykey. // makes this line work.

Clashes between built-in suffixes versus lexicon keys

kOS will always prefer to use the built-in suffix name first when trying to search for a suffix name in a lexicon. Therefore if you make a key who’s name matches an existing built-in suffix term for Lexicons, you will get the built-in value instead of your key’s value. Here’s an example:

local mylex is lexicon().
set mylex["LENGTH"] to 20.

// prints 1.  LENGTH is already a suffix of Lexicons, so
// that's what this gets you, not the key called "length":
print mylex:length.

// This will print 20, as there's no ambiguity that you were
// definitely looking for the key called "length" in this
// case, not the built-in suffix called "length":
print mylex["length"].

Suffix keys also work with HASSUFFIX and SUFFIXNAMES

All values in kerboscript derive from Structure:, and all such structures have Structure:HASSUFFIX and Structure:SUFFIXNAMES members. Because a Lexicon has this special ability to use the suffix syntax with keys, kOS will add all the keys of a lexicon that are “suffix-able” to the output of that lexicon’s SUFFIXNAMES call. Also, when you test if a suffix exists for a lexicon with HASSUFFIX, any key in that lexicon that could be used as a suffix will also return true, in addition to the normal built-in suffixes.

Structure

structure Lexicon
Members
Suffix Type Description
ADD(key,value) None append an item to the lexicon
CASESENSITIVE boolean changes the behaviour of string based keys. Which are by default case insensitive. Setting this will clear the lexicon.
CASE boolean A synonym for CASESENSITIVE
CLEAR None remove all items in the lexicon
COPY Lexicon returns a (shallow) copy of the contents of the lexicon
DUMP string verbose dump of all contained elements
HASKEY(keyvalue) boolean does the lexicon have a key of the given value?
HASVALUE(value) boolean does the lexicon have a value of the given value?
KEYS List gives a flat List of the keys in the lexicon
VALUES List gives a flat List of the values in the lexicon
LENGTH scalar number of pairs in the lexicon
REMOVE(keyvalue) None removes the pair with the given key
HASSUFFIX(name) Boolean True if the suffix OR a key with the name, exists.
SUFFIXNAMES List of strings Gives both the suffixes AND the keys that work as suffixes

Note

This type is serializable.

Lexicon:ADD(key, value)
Parameters:
  • key – (any type) a unique key
  • value – (any type) a value that is to be associated to the key

Adds an additional pair to the lexicon.

Lexicon:CASESENSITIVE
Type:Boolean
Access:Get or Set

The case sensitivity behaviour of the lexicon when the keys are strings. By default, all kerboscript lexicons use case-insensitive keys, at least for those keys that are string types, meaning that mylexicon[“AAA”] means the same exact thing as mylexicon[“aaa”]. If you do not want this behaviour, and instead want the key “AAA” to be different from the key “aaa”, you can set this value to true.

Be aware, however, that if you change this, it has the side effect of clearing out the entire contents of the lexicon. This is done so as to avoid any potential clashes when the rules about what constitutes a duplicate key changed after the lexicon was already populated. Therefore you should probably only set this on a brand new lexicon, right after you’ve created it, and never change it after that.

Lexicon:CASE
Type:Boolean
Access:Get or Set

Synonym for CASESENSITIVE (see above).

Lexicon:REMOVE(key)
Parameters:
  • key – the keyvalue of the pair to be removed

Remove the pair with the given key from the lexicon.

Lexicon:CLEAR()

Removes all of the pairs from the lexicon. Making it empty.

Lexicon:LENGTH
Type:scalar
Access:Get only

Returns the number of pairs in the lexicon.

Lexicon:COPY()
Return type:Lexicon
Access:Get only

Returns a new lexicon that contains the same set of pairs as this lexicon. Note that this is a “shallow” copy, meaning that if there is a value in the list that refers to, for example, another Lexicon, or a Vessel, or a Part, the new copy will still be referring to the same object as the original copy in that value.

Lexicon:HASKEY(key)
Parameters:
  • key – (any type)
Returns:

boolean

Returns true if the lexicon contains the provided key

Lexicon:HASVALUE(key)
Parameters:
  • key – (any type)
Returns:

boolean

Returns true if the lexicon contains the provided value

Lexicon:DUMP
Type:string
Access:Get only

Returns a string containing a verbose dump of the lexicon’s contents.

The difference between a DUMP and just the normal printing of a Lexicon is in whether or not it recursively shows you the contents of every complex object inside the Lexicon.

i.e:

// Just gives a shallow list:
print mylexicon.

// Walks the entire tree of contents, descending down into
// any Lists or Lexicons that are stored inside this Lexicon:
print mylexicon:dump.
Lexicon:KEYS
Type:List
Access:Get only

Returns a List of the keys stored in this lexicon.

Lexicon:VALUES
Type:List
Access:Get only

Returns a List of the values stored in this lexicon.

Lexicon:HASSUFFIX(name)
Parameters:
  • nameString name of the suffix being tested for
Return type:

Boolean

Access:

Get only

This is just like the base method Structure:HASSUFFIX(name) that all structures have, but with one slight difference - it will also return true if the name you pass in matches one of the keys of this lexicon that could be used with the lexicon suffix syntax.

Lexicon:SUFFIXNAMES
Type:List of strings
Access:Get only

All structures in kerboscript have a Structure:SUFFIXNAMES attribute that shows a list of all the suffixes on the structure, but for Lexicons the SUFFIXNAMES attribute has been altered so that it will additionally include any keys of the suffix that could be callled using the lexicon suffix syntax.

Access to Individual Elements

lexicon[expression]
operator: another syntax to access the element at position ‘expression’. Works for get or set. Any arbitrary complex expression may be used with this syntax, not just a number or variable name.
FOR VAR IN LEXICON:KEYS { ... }.
A type of loop in which var iterates over all the items of lexicon from item 0 to item LENGTH-1.

Implicit ADD when using index brackets with new key values

(a.k.a. The difference between GETTING and SETTING with nonexistant keys)

If you attempt to use a key that does not exist in the lexicon, to GET a value, as follows:

SET ARR TO LEXICON().
SET X TO ARR["somekey"].  // this will produce an error.

Then you will get a KOSKeyNotFoundException error, as you might expect, because the key "somekey" isn’t there in the empty lexicon you just made.

However if you use a key that does not exist yet to SET a value rather than to GET a value, you don’t get an error. Instead it actually implicitly ADDS the new value to the lexicon with that key. The example below will not give you an error:

SET ARR TO LEXICON().
SET ARR["somekey"] TO 100. // adds new value to the lexicon.

The above ends up doing the same thing as if you had done this:

SET ARR TO LEXICON().
ARR:ADD("somekey",100).

Note that while using :ADD() to make a new value in the lexicon will give you a duplicate key error if the value already does exist, using SET to create the value implicitly won’t because it simply replaces the existing value in-place rather than trying to make a new one.

This gives a duplicate key error:

SET ARR TO LEXICON().
ARR:ADD("somekey",100).
ARR:ADD("somekey",200).  // error, because "somekey" already exists.

While this does not:

SET ARR TO LEXICON().
SET ARR["somekey"] to 100.
SET ARR["somekey"] to 200. // no error, because it replaces the value 100 with a 200.

In a nutshell, using [..] to set a value in a lexicon does this: If the key already exists, replace the value with the new value. If the key does not already exist, make it exist and give it this new value.

Examples

SET BAR TO LEXICON().       // Creates a new empty lexicon in BAR variable
BAR:ADD("FIRST",10).        // Adds a new element to the lexicon with the key of "FIRST"
BAR:ADD("SECOND",20).       // Adds a new element to the lexicon with the key of "SECOND"
BAR:ADD("LAST",30).         // Adds a new element to the lexicon with the key of "LAST"

PRINT BAR["FIRST"].            // Prints 10
PRINT BAR["SECOND"].            // Prints 20
PRINT BAR["LAST"].            // Prints 30

SET FOO TO LEXICON().           // Creates a new empty lexicon in FOO variable
FOO:ADD("ALTITUDE", ALTITUDE).  // Adds current altitude number to the lexicon
FOO:ADD("ETA", ETA:APOAPSIS).   // Adds current seconds to apoapsis to the lexicon at the index "ETA"

// As a reminder, at this point your lexicon, if you did all the above
// steps in order, would look like this now:
//
//  FOO["ALTITUDE"] = 99999. // or whatever your altitude was when you added it.
//  FOO["ETA"] = 99. // or whatever your ETA:APOAPSIS was when you added it.

PRINT FOO:LENGTH.        // Prints 2
PRINT FOO:LENGTH().      // Also prints 2.  LENGTH is a method that, because it takes zero arguments, can omit the parentheses.
SET x TO "ALTITUDE". PRINT FOO[x].  // Prints the same thing as FOO["ALTITUDE"].

FOO:REMOVE("ALTITUDE").              // Removes the element at "ALTITUDE" from the lexicon.